The totoaba is a large marine fish species endemic to the Gulf of California. Once abundant, massive schools of totoaba swam in annual circular migrations around the Gulf, stopping to spawn in the Colorado River Delta where the juveniles took refuge for several years before migrating themselves. The Comcaac, an indigenous group in Sonora, have an extensive knowledge of this species and tell the story of black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans) transforming into totoaba as they land on and enter the water in the Delta.
Across the globe in the early 1900s, populations of a similar fish called the Chinese bahaba were brought to near extinction as the demand for their swim bladder, used medicinally in Asia, was high. This contributed to the establishment of the commercial totoaba market in the Gulf of California. The fish were captured in huge quantities in the 1920s and many fishing camps sprung up specifically for the harvest. Their less-valuable meat was often abandoned and only the swim bladders, or buches, were taken to market and sold to fish buyers in Arizona for large sums of money. This practice, combined with the threats of an altered habitat in the Delta and frequent accidental catch (bycatch) of totoaba juveniles by shrimp trawlers, quickly decimated their population.
Fishing totoaba became illegal in 1975 and they were later listed as critically endangered under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Today, they are still targeted illegally and sold in the black market for up to $10,000 each; the demand has not only continued the decline of this species, but has also driven the vaquita, a small, endemic porpoise, to critical endangerment through accidental capture in gillnets meant for totoaba.
Depletion of this species, among countless others—including the finescale triggerfish and cownose ray also featured here—through overfishing, bycatch, and altering of the Colorado River Delta, has continued to have an impact on the entire ecosystem, human communities, and food corridor in the Sonoran Desert Region.
By Eric Magrane
when the black brants
fly north to the delta
they turn into totoaba
sonic muscle fibers
around swim bladder
buoyancy in the column
migration cycling the gulf
dreams of schools
a century later, insatiable drumming
insatiable your name
insatiable the humans who say
“the swim bladder or buche
is scraped and washed until
it is snowy white”
already ghost-like, the edge
of three generations
what was twenty fish is now one
and you are caught in trawl nets
and you are caught, like the vaquita,
and you are caught
in utterly transformed
waters, and they continue, “after drying
it becomes a clear, translucent,
light amber color
and about as tough
as a steel armored plate,”
like drumming, is it transforming
buoyancy, turning back
into birds and flying into a hard shell of translucent nothing?
By Eric Magrane
not your swimming
like a wave itself,
your ripples mirroring
the sea form, the way
your second dorsal spine unlocks
the throat of the future
or rather releases
your first trigger
but onshore the man with his knife
jabbing, at first I thought
out of mercy, but then
no, and you probably
gliding, while the people
gathered around turn into
clouds billowing above
and the hard bench of the boat
is soft sea floor
The finescale triggerfish is found from northern California to the Gulf of California, and southward to Chile. It is called cochi in Spanish, referring to its round, pig-like shape. As protection against predators, its second dorsal spine—when erect—locks in place its first dorsal spine, which then cannot be released until “triggered.” In the colder months triggerfish move very slowly, and it has been reported that divers can pick them right up. The nets of shrimp trawlers, of course, also have no problem picking them right up along with all of the other bycatch they haul up. When caught locally closer to shore, they are often used in ceviche.
By Eric Magrane
sleek glide nose wing to strike
large schools or loose aggregations
beaten metal gills
yet what do we know
you move like water itself
The cownose ray is found from the Baja Peninsula and the Gulf of California southward to Peru. Like sharks, they are elasmobranchs, a classification meaning they have skeletons of cartilage rather than bone, and large livers that control their buoyancy. This species is always moving: they often form aggregations of hundreds of individuals that “fly” through the water, and migrate northward or southward depending on the season. They are a particularly sensitive group of animals, as females reach maturity late in life and give birth to only one pup per year. Even so, they are one of the most heavily targeted elasmobranchs in the small-scale fishery and are frequently captured as bycatch in the Gulf of California. It is becoming a rare sight to see them in the wild, and increasingly more likely to encounter them in zoos and museums.
Bycatch Collector’s Edition Trading Cards pay witness to 11 of the species caught as bycatch in the Gulf of California shrimp trawling fishery. Riffing off of the form of baseball cards, the format both honors the living species and memorializes individuals caught up in the nets. The production of a Collector’s Edition bestows value on these species that are surplus casualties in the fishery. Johnson and Magrane created the illustrations and poems in Bycatch as part of the N-Gen Sonoran Desert Researchers 6&6 Art-Science Initiative. ✜
These cards are part of a multimedia Bycatch exhibit by Magrane and Johnson at the University of Arizona Museum of Art. It shows through April 2.
Eric Magrane is the coeditor, with Christopher Cokinos, of The Sonoran Desert: A Literary Field Guide (University of Arizona Press, 2016). He is completing a Ph.D. in geography at the University of Arizona, where he is a research associate with the Institute of the Environment.
Maria Johnson is an illustrator and marine conservationist. For several years she has studied shrimp trawler bycatch in the Gulf of California with Prescott College’s Kino Bay Center for Cultural and Ecological Studies.